Sugarcane

Egypt


Sugarcane Taxonomy or

Scientific classification

 

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Kingdom: Plantae

Division:  Magnoliophyta

Class:      Liliopsida

Order:     Cyperales

Family:    Poaceae (formerly Graminae).

Genus:    Saccharum

 

Sugarcane, is any of six to thirty-seven species (depending on taxonomic system) of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae). Native to warm temperate to tropical regions of Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six meters (six to nineteen feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Brazil produces about one-third of the world's sugarcane

 

The genus Saccharum (Poaceae) contains the sugar canes (actually several species) and other ornamental grasses such as Ravenna grass.

  • Saccharum alopecuroidum (L.) Nutt. -- silver plumegrass
  • Saccharum arundinaceum Retz.
  • Saccharum baldwinii Spreng. -- narrow plumegrass
  • Saccharum barberi Jeswiet -- Barber's cane
  • Saccharum bengalense Retz. -- Munj sweetcane
  • Saccharum brevibarbe (Michx.) Pers. -- shortbeard plumegrass
  • Saccharum coarctatum (Fern.) R. Webster -- compressed plumegrass
  • Saccharum giganteum (Walt.) Pers. -- sugarcane plumegrass
  • Saccharum officinarum L. -- sugarcane
  • Saccharum procerum
  • Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. -- Ravenna grass, ravennagrass
  • Saccharum robustum Brandes & Jesw. ex Grassl -- robust cane
  • Saccharum sinense Roxb. -- Chinese cane
  • Saccharum spontaneum L. -- ahlek, loa, wild cane, wild sugarcane

Genera See: List of Poaceae genera

 

The true grasses are monocot (class Liliopsida) plants of the family Poaceae (formerly Graminae). There are some 600 genera and perhaps 10,000 species of grasses. It is estimated grasslands comprise 20% of the vegetation cover of the earth. This family is the most important of all plant families to human economies, including lawn and forage grasses, the staple food grains grown around the world, and bamboo, widely used for construction throughout Asia. Grasses generally have the following characteristics:

  • Typically hollow stems (called culms), plugged at intervals (the nodes).
  • Leaves, arising at nodes, alternate, distichous (in one plane) or rarely spiral, and parallel-veined.
  • Leaves differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem for a distance and a blade with margin usually entire; a ligule (a membranous appendage or ring of hairs) lies at the junction between sheath and blade.
  • Flowers small (called florets), lacking petals, and grouped into spikelets arranged in a panicle, raceme, spike, or head; the flowers wind-pollinated.
  • Fruit a caryopsis (also called a grain).  

Agricultural grasses grown for food production are called cereals. Cereals constitute the major source of calories for humans, and include rice in India and the Far East, maize in Mexico, and wheat and barley in Europe and North America. Staple food grains are often called corn. Some commonly known grass plants are:

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Sugarcane Species From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Selected species

Saccharum arundinaceum
Saccharum bengalense[verification needed]
Saccharum edule
Saccharum munja[verification needed]
Saccharum officinarum
Saccharum procerum
Saccharum ravennae
Saccharum robustum
Saccharum sinense
Saccharum spontaneum

 

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